What are the effects of radiation on the thyroid gland?

For an average person in an average place. Including RF which we are all bombarded with every day 24/7.

What are the side effects of Rai (Radioactive Iodine) for thyroid treatment ?

My mom is 72 yrs old. On Nov 27 of last year her GP sent her to a thyroid specialist and was told that she should take this nuclear medicine RAI Pill to kill her thyroid and once that was done, they would put her on thyroid pills to control her thyroid. Since taking this RAI pill her BP and Diabetes is totally out of wack ! Her BP has gone up 218/90 . The doctor put her on Norvasc and the diabetes specialist put her on topazole. Her BP seems to be getting better but her diabetes is still bad. She started getting a really bad rash since this weekend, and her GP told her to stop taking the 4 pills of topazole for a couple of days until she gets to see her thyroid specialist next monday. My mom had her BP and
diabetes under control before taking this RAI pill. She thought she was going for a routine thyroid check up. Why are we not getting any answers from her doctors? Her GP said that he is not responsible for medication given to her from the other doctors. What is going on ?

Why would a doctor make a teen get a thyroid ultrasound? What thyroid conditions are there?

The doctor believes that a 17 year old has a lump in her throat.
What could show up in an ultrasound?
What conditions result from thyroid problems?

When is it time to surgically remove the thyroid gland due to multinodular thyroid disease?

I have had multinodular thyroid disease for many years. My thyroid gland works perfectly, but I have been monitored by various endocrinologists for years. I take Synthroid to get the nodules in check. However, in January, my tests (an ultrasound and a nuclear medicine scan) showed I now had 6 large fluid filled cold nodules. The Dr assured me they are benign. My Dr. increased my thyroid dosage for 6 months to see if there would be any improvement. I just had another ultrasound prior to my doctor’s appt next week & now I have 30-40 nodules. I have some difficulty swallowing, especially at night if I lay on my back, and my neck sometimes hurts. I am I know that the medical people are reluctant to remove a thyroid gland that works, but I am beginning to feel that maybe it is time for the surgery. I am 54 and in good health otherwise. Has anyone else had this situation? Do you think I should discuss this with the endocrinologist and maybe get a 2nd opinion?

Tests That Check For Thyroid and Neck Cancers

According to the National Cancer Institute, the following tests and procedures may be used to examine the thyroid, neck, and blood to detect (find) and diagnose thyroid cancer, and decide on appropriate thyroid cancer treatments:

Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or swelling in the neck, voice box, and lymph nodes, and anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.

Laryngoscopy: A procedure in which the doctor checks the larynx (voice box) with a mirror or with a laryngoscope. A laryngoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. A thyroid tumor may press on vocal cords. The laryngoscopy is done to see if the vocal cords are moving normally.

Blood hormone studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain hormones released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it. The blood may be checked for abnormal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH is made by the pituitary gland in the brain. It stimulates the release of thyroid hormone and controls how fast follicular thyroid cells grow. The blood may also be checked for high levels of the hormone calcitonin which may necessitate parotid gland surgery depending on several factors.

Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances, such as calcium, released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.

Radioactive iodine scan (RAI scan): A procedure to find areas in the body where thyroid cancer cells may be dividing quickly. Radioactive iodine (RAI) is used because only thyroid cells take up iodine. A very small amount of RAI is swallowed, travels through the blood, and collects in thyroid tissue and thyroid cancer cells anywhere in the body. Abnormal thyroid cells take up less iodine than normal thyroid tissue. Areas that do not absorb the iodine normally (cold spots) show up lighter in the picture made by the scan. Cold spots can be either benign (not cancer) or malignant, so a biopsy is done to find out if they are salivary gland cancer or other type of cancer.

Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later. This procedure can show the size of a thyroid tumor and whether it is solid or a fluid -filled cyst. Ultrasound may be used to guide a fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).

PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. A Los Angeles oncologist injects a small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid: The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The needle is inserted through the skin into the thyroid. Several tissue samples are removed from different parts of the thyroid. A pathologist views the tissue samples under a microscope to look for cancer cells. Because the type of thyroid cancer can be hard to diagnose, patients should ask to have biopsy samples checked by a pathologist who has experience diagnosing thyroid cancer.

Surgical biopsy: The removal of the thyroid nodule or one lobe of the thyroid during surgery so the cells and tissues can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. Because the type of thyroid cancer can be hard to diagnose, patients should ask to have biopsy samples checked by a pathologist who has experience diagnosing thyroid cancer.

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